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Transnational Issues

Disputes – International

The effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighbouring states. As of 2006, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda provided shelter for over half a million Sudanese refugees, which includes 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military forces. Sudan, in turn, hosted about 116,000 Eritreans, 20,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians, Ugandans, Central Africans and Congolese as refugees. In February 2006, Sudan and DROC signed an agreement to repatriate 13,300 Sudanese and 6,800 Congolese. Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups.

Efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan. The boundary that separates Kenya and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle" which Kenya has administered since colonial times. Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary.

Periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic.

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)

As of 2007, the number of refugees in Sudan were 157,220 (Eritrea), 25,023 (Chad), 11,009 (Ethiopia), 7,895 (Uganda) and 5,023 (Central African Republic).

Also in that same year, there were between 5.3 and 6.2 million IDPs in Sudan, due to the civil war of 1983-2005 and the ongoing conflict in Darfur region.

Trafficking in Persons

Sudan is a source country for men, women and children trafficked internally for the purposes of forced labour and sexual exploitation. Sudan is also a transit and destination country for Ethiopian women trafficked abroad for domestic servitude. Sudanese women and girls are trafficked within the country as well as possibly to Middle Eastern countries for domestic servitude.

The terrorist rebel organisation, Lord's Resistance Army, continues to harbour small numbers of Sudanese and Ugandan children in the southern part of the country for use as cooks, porters and combatants. Some of these children are also trafficked across borders into Uganda or the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Militia groups in Darfur, some of which are linked to the government, abduct women for short periods of forced labour and to perpetrate sexual violence. During the two decades-long north-south civil war, thousands of Dinka women and children were abducted and subsequently enslaved by members of the Missiriya and Rezeigat tribes. While there have been no known new abductions of Dinka by members of Baggara tribes in the last few years, inter-tribal abductions continue in southern Sudan.

Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; combating human trafficking through law enforcement or prevention measures was not a priority for the government in 2007.





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